Anxiety in sport Are we any closer to untangling
the knots?
When you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
    1 Describe the main characteristics and causes of anxiety
    2 Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of anxiety measures
    3 Evaluate theories that address the anxiety–performance relationship
    4 Describe some strategies that an applied sport psychologist might use to help athletes deal with
The BASES Expert Statement on Emotion Regulation in Sport

Produced on behalf of BASES by Prof Andy Lane FBASES, Dr Christopher Beedie, Dr Marc Jones, Dr Mark Uphill and Dr Tracey Devonport
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Useful resources
BASES webinair Developing Resilience: From Theory to Practice

Mustafa Sarkar and Paul Morgan.
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FearFighter is a cognitive behavioural therapy-based online self-help course for treating panic and phobia. It teaches ways to tackle panicky or anxious thoughts
and to stop avoiding the things that cause them.

FearFighter consists of nine computer-based sessions lasting about an hour each. The sessions are interactive, with videos, exercises and downloadable content,
and ideally they should be done at weekly intervals. You will also need to do about four to five hours of homework each week.

The course helps you set treatment goals and explains how anxiety affects the mind and body. It helps you gradually face the things you fear and avoid. You'll be
encouraged to fill in questionnaires each week so you can plot your progress.
Although athletes experience a range of emotions, research has predominantly focused on anxiety. This chapter
explores the characteristics, antecedents, consequences and regulation of anxiety. By providing both some historical
context and contemporary and contentious issues, it is intended that the reader will develop a thorough,
if not exhaustive, understanding of this fascinating area of study.
Butt, J., Weinberg, R. and Horn, T. (2003). The intensity and directional interpretation of anxiety: Fluctuations throughout competition and relationship to performance. The Sport
Psychologist, 17,
Craft, L. L., Magyar, M., Becker, B. J. and Feltz, D. L. (2003). The relationship between the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and sport performance: A meta-analysis.
Journal of
Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2
5, 44–65.
Eysenck, M. W. and Derakshan, N. (2011). New perspectives in attentional control theory.
Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 955–60.
Hanton, S. and Jones, G. (1999). The effects of a multimodal intervention programme on performers: II. Training the butterflies to fly in formation.
The Sport Psychologist, 13, 22–41.
Hanton, S., Thomas, O. and Maynard, I. (2004). Competitive anxiety responses in the week leading up to competition: The role of intensity, direction and frequency dimensions.
sychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 169–81.
Uphill, M. A. and Dray, K. (2013). The thrill of defeat and the agony of victory: Towards an understanding and transformation of athletes’ emotional experience.
Reflective Practice,
, 660–71.
Winning lane